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Narconon warns of Ritalin (Methylphenidate) Abuse
What are the street names/slang terms for it?
Kibbles and bits, Pineapple
What is it?
Ritalin, the trade name for methylphenidate, is a medication prescribed for children with an abnormally high level of activity or with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is also occasionally prescribed for treating narcolepsy. It stimulates the central nervous system, with effects similar to but less potent than amphetamines and more potent than caffeine. Ritalin has a notably calming effect on hyperactive children and a "focusing" effect on those with ADHD. When taken as prescribed, Ritalin is a valuable medicine. Further, research funded by the National Institute of Mental Health has shown that people with ADHD do not get addicted to their stimulant medications at treatment dosages. Because of its stimulant properties, however, in recent years, there have been reports of its abuse by people for whom it is not a medication. At their December 1996 meeting, members of NIDA's Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG) noted that:
- Some stimulant users mix Ritalin (or "West Coast") with heroin, or with both cocaine and heroin for a more potent effect.
- Middle and high school students crush and inhale the drug or take the pill orally.
- Some adults have been admitted to treatment programs for abusing the drug from their children's prescriptions.
- According to reports by youth treatment providers, some adolescents continue to abuse the drug, which is most easily available through diverted prescriptions. Drug abuse treatment staffs in Boston also report an increase in abuse among adults.
What does it look like?
Ritalin is in pill or tablet form.
How is it used?
Based on data gathered by Narconon research, many non-medical users crush the tablets and either snort the resulting powder, or dissolve it in water and "cook" it for intravenous injection.
What are its short-term effects?
Ritalin (methylphenidate) is a central nervous system stimulant, similar to amphetamines in the nature and duration of its effects. It is believed that it works by activating the brain stem arousal system and cortex. Pharmacologically, it works on the neurotransmitter dopamine, and in that respect resembles the stimulant characteristics of cocaine. Short-term effects can include nervousness and insomnia, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, dizziness,palpitations, headaches, changes in heart rate and blood pressure (usually elevation of both, but occasionally depression), skin rashes and itching, abdominal pain, weight loss, and digestive problems, toxic psychosis, psychotic episodes, drug dependence syndrome,and severe depression upon withdrawal.
What are its long-term effects?
High doses of stimulants produce a predictable set of symptoms that include loss of appetite (may cause serious malnutrition), tremors and muscle twitching, fevers, convulsions, and headaches (may be severe), irregular heartbeat and respirations (may be profound and life threatening), anxiety, restlessness, paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions, excessive repetition of movements and meaningless tasks, and formicaton (sensation of bugs or worms crawling under the skin).
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